The Lord's Supper
, also called communion or the eucharist
(meaning "thanksgiving" in Greek), holds deep significance for a believer and should not be underestimated.
More than just a memorial to remember Jesus' death and resurrection, the Lord's Supper is also a
declaration of one's continual dependance upon Christ's life and a regular reminder of His soon return.
Observance of the Lord's Supper began when Jesus initiated it at His last supper
meal before His death with His disciples.
The apostle Paul wrote about this event in I Corinthians 11:23-26: "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered
unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: And when he had given thanks,
he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament [covenant]
in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread,
and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come."
the Lord's Supper involves partaking of two elements, bread and grape juice (or wine) and is preceded by
a blessing or prayer of thanksgiving.
The Two Elements
The Bible reveals some deep truths about the two elements of communion
The Bread, Representing the
Body of Jesus
By partaking of the bread in communion, we acknowledge that Jesus is our source of life. Indeed,
He is the Bread of Life whereby we may satisfy our spiritual hunger. He said, "I am
the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread
that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world"
life, so when Jesus broke the unleavened bread and gave it to His disciples, He illustrated that His body (life)
would be broken in order that they might have life.
But there's more: the broken body of Jesus ushered in the new covenant
signified by the temple veil tearing in two. The writer of Hebrews said, "Having
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way,
which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh"
This "new and living way" is by His Spirit, allowing us to approach God with a heart made pure by the blood of
Jesus. Furthermore, the resurrected body of Jesus validates the new
, because the same Holy Spirit that raised up Jesus from the dead is the same Spirit dwelling
in the children of God (see Romans 8:11), Who will raise them, too, at the last day!
Finally, the breaking of bread with other believers signifies fellowship within the Body of Christ and unity
by the Holy Spirit (see Acts 2:42). The Body of Christ is strengthened and Jesus is glorified when the Body
serves one another in humility and shares blessings in selfless love.
"For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one
(I Corinthians 10:17).
The Cup, Representing the
Blood of Jesus
The symbol of a cup represents a measure or portion, and blood signifies suffering
. Blood is the life of the body, but when it is poured out, death occurs
(see Leviticus 17:11). The Father gave Jesus a cup of suffering to drink, requiring Him to be the sacrificial
Lamb of atonement for sin and to pour out His sinless blood through a torturous death; for only
the shed blood of Jesus can cleanse and make permanent atonement for all sin (see I John 1:7).
Jesus cried out in Gethsemane, "Abba [Daddy], Father, all things are possible
unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt"
(Mark 14:36). Later, Jesus said to Peter, "Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup
which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?"
(John 18:11). Jesus submitted Himself to His Father's will and
drank the dark and terrible cup of wrath for our sin. "For he [the Father] hath made him [Jesus] to be
sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him"
(II Corinthians 5:21).
By partaking of the communion cup, we commit to follow Jesus no matter the cost.
Jesus drank the cup of God's wrath for our sin, but we are to partake in His sufferings for righteousness' sake.
Jesus said, "If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you"
(John 15:20). Paul knew from
experience that all who "live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution"
(II Timothy 3:12).
And Peter encouraged believers to respond to suffering even as Christ did: "For even hereunto
were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:
Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he
suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously"
(I Peter 2:21-23).
The Lord's Supper gives believers the opportunity to identify themselves with Jesus, Mediator of
the new covenant
, and show that they are willing to experience both His
life (power) and death (suffering) in their daily walk. The apostle Paul said it best:
"That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the
fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death. If by any means I might attain unto
the resurrection of the dead"
(Philippians 3:10-11). Just as the Passover was a symbol of the
, so the Lord's Supper is a symbol of the new.
Christians remember the sacrificial death of the Lamb of God for their sin (bondage)
while anticipating the consummation of their salvation in the Kingdom of heaven (Promised Land).
King David knew only the old covenant, yet by faith he declared, "I will take the
cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the LORD"
Because of the significance of identifying with Christ in communion, unbelievers and hypocrites
(those who profess to be Christians but live according to the world) should not participate.
Everyone else should examine his own heart prior to partaking the Lord's Supper to be certain of a pure
conscience toward God.
"Whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be
guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread,
and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself,
not discerning the Lord's body"
(I Corinthians 11:27-29). The word "discern" in this context means to make
a distinction or set apart the holy from that which is common; it means to not regard
"the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing"
Although you should certainly rejoice and celebrate the finished work of Christ's death and
resurrection, be sure you also "walk worthy of God, who hath called you unto his
kingdom and glory"
(I Thessalonians 2:12). Eating and drinking unworthily has to do with trying to
identify with Christ but elsewhere living like the world (a hypocrite). We are warned to turn from sin
before identifying with Christ so as not to come under judgment. Paul said, "Purge out
therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is
sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven
of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth"
(I Corinthians 5:8).
Paul gave some additional warnings about the right approach to the table of the Lord.
The Corinthian church had divisions over their communion meal because some people were selfish and
overindulgent while others left hungry. Paul corrected them sternly, saying that this was
not the Lord's Supper at all. He said, "Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together
to eat, tarry [wait] one for another. And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together
(see I Corinthians 11:17-22, 33-34). Paul understood that the purpose of the Lord's
Supper was to remember Christ and His example of love and servanthood, not to feast and indulge.
One interpretation of Paul's correction here is that whenever the Body of Christ comes together, there should
in eating and drinking; if everyone is not eating, then no one should eat. If anyone is
hungry, Paul said, let him eat at home — instead of eating, for example, while the rest of the Body
is worshipping the Lord.
Bond of Fellowship
Communion illustrates fellowship with the Lord and with His Body. We read:
- Our fellowship is with the Father and His Son Jesus (I Corinthians 1:9, 1 John 1:3).
- Our fellowship is through the Holy Ghost (II Corinthians 13:14, Philippians 2:1).
- Believers fellowship in the Gospel. We all are partakers in the saving power and message of the good news (I Corinthians 9:23; Philippians 1:5).
- Those who walk in the light have fellowship with each other (1 John 1:7).
- Some may break fellowship with the Body, as one who betrays a brother (Leviticus 6:2, John 21:20).
- If we say we have fellowship with Jesus Christ, but walk in darkness, we lie (I John 1:6).
- Righteousness and unrighteousness cannot walk in fellowship together (Psalm 94:20, I Corinthians 10:20, Ephesians 5:11).
So precious is the bond of fellowship portrayed in communion that it cannot be shared with
other "gods." Paul said, "Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils:
ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils"
(I Corinthians 10:21). No one
can serve two masters (see Luke 16:13), neither can a person keep idols in his or her heart while fellowshipping
with the Lord. Some may pretend to do so (as
a hypocrite), but the Scripture says,
"Whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God"
Last but not least, the Lord's Supper is a time to anticipate the day when we will see our
Lord and King face to face. He will drink of the fruit of the vine for the first time since His death, just as He said:
"I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I
drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom"
(Matthew 26:29). There will be a great marriage supper
of the Lamb and judgment on the wicked (see Revelation 19:7-18).
In that day, those who do not share in the cup of the
Lord will have their own cup to drink: "For in the hand of the LORD there
is a cup, and the wine is red; it is full of mixture; and he poureth out of the same: but the dregs thereof,
all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them"
(Psalm 75:8; see also Revelation 14:9-10).
Questions and Answers
Here are a few questions that some may ask about the Lord's Supper.
- How often should a church observe communion?
There is no biblical guideline for how often a group of believers should observe the Lord's Supper.
In light of Jesus' instruction to do it in remembrance of Him as well as Paul's teaching in
I Corinthians 11, communion should be held periodically as a reminder of
believers' mutual fellowship (koinonia in Greek) with the Lord and with
one another. "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of
the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?"
(I Corinthians 10:16). A general guideline to follow would be to not take communion so often that it
becomes ritualistic and routine, but often enough that believers benefit from the reminder.
- Does the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of the Lord, as some churches teach?
Certainly not! This is a perversion of the spiritual truth Jesus taught in John 6:53-56 about eating His flesh
and drinking His blood. The Catholic church has built a whole doctrine called transubstantiation
on this one passage, ignoring the fact that just a few verses later, Jesus said, "It is
the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit,
and they are life" (John 6:63). In addition, God forbids the practice of eating blood and
would never command His children to do something He had already forbidden:
"But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat"
(Genesis 9:4, see also Deuteronomy 12:23). Those who teach this unscriptural tradition would rather have you
eating Jesus than placing your faith in Him. If that weren't enough, Catholic priests allegedly have the
supernatural power to turn the bread and wine into the literal body and blood of Jesus Christ.
This is blatant idolatry, for they are exalting themselves to the position of God.
The Bible teaches that all spiritual life comes through faith in Jesus; for He said,
"I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that
believeth on me shall never thirst" (John 6:35). Jesus is not physically with us now; our communion
with Him is by His Spirit.
- Is it okay to use alcoholic wine in communion? The biblical mandate here is this:
"It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother
stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak" (Romans 14:21). While some believers have the liberty
to drink wine on occasion (we are not to be drunk with wine — see Ephesians 5:18 and I Timothy
5:23), other believers count it as sin. Let every one be convinced in his own heart,
"for whatsoever is not of faith is sin" (Romans 14:23). A believer who has
the liberty to drink wine with a pure conscience should "take heed lest by any
means this liberty of yours become a stumblingblock to them that are weak" (I Corinthians 8:9).
In Christ there is liberty, but the Body of Christ is not to use that liberty as an occasion to the flesh
(see Galatians 5:13). We are to consider others ahead of ourselves and honor the Lord in everything we do.
"Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do,
do all to the glory of God" (I Corinthians 10:31). Those who prepare the communion
elements should be sensitive to the weaknesses of those they serve; for example, if there is a new believer
who has forsaken alcohol with his old life, it is probably not a good idea to serve him alcoholic
The Lord's Supper is a symbol of the new covenant we have with God by Christ Jesus. This covenant
is the "new and living way" whereby we follow God's law written on our hearts by the power of His Spirit.
The next time you participate in the Lord's supper, remember not only Jesus' death and resurrection,
but also reflect on the deeper meaning that He is your continual source of spiritual life.